Essentially, law is a set of rules enforceable by social institutions. It includes contracts, business agreements, and family law. Traditionally, the practice of law is regulated by governments. Modern lawyers have to complete a bachelor’s degree in law and have a qualifying examination.
Legal systems vary from nation to nation. Common legal issues include consumer rights, immigration, debt, and housing. The outcome of a legal issue depends on the court’s interpretation of the law.
The International Court of Justice (also known as the World Court), is the primary dispute settlement organ of the United Nations. It was founded in 1946. It has considered over 170 cases and issued advisory opinions.
The concept of “natural law” emerged in ancient Greek philosophy, but has returned into mainstream culture through the writings of Thomas Aquinas. Naturalists argue that religion, moral philosophy, and individual conscience are part of the law.
The International Law Commission was formed by the General Assembly in 1947 to promote progressive development of international law. It is composed of 34 members from the world’s leading legal systems. It prepares drafts on aspects of international law and consults with UN specialized agencies.
There are three types of laws: state-enforced, nationality, and private. The former are made by an executive through decrees or by a group legislature.
The latter are made by an independent, neutral regulating body. These can be based on the doctrine of precedent, which means that future decisions will be based on previous decisions.