Law is a set of rules and standards that govern a society and regulate human behavior. While its precise definition is a subject of debate, most scholars agree that it encompasses a number of fundamental concepts and principles. Law has four primary functions: establishing standards, maintaining order, resolving disputes, and protecting liberties and rights. Different legal systems serve these functions in diverse ways, with some achieving success more fully than others.
Scientific laws describe observations that can be verified by careful testing for example, Newton’s Law of Gravity or Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment. These laws, however, do not explain why or how they work. Laws must be justified in order to be enforceable, and they typically draw their justification from other legal norms. For instance, a court may consider the statement “Joseph holds a legal right in his good name” to be justifiable because it is based on the more general rule that all persons hold a right in their own names.
The law is also shaped by the political landscape in which it operates. For example, a nation ruled by an authoritarian government can keep the peace and maintain the status quo but it might oppress minorities or suppress political opponents. In contrast, a liberal legal system may promote civil liberties and protect the rights of individuals.